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车城乡

车城乡历史沿革
本乡分为11村:田中村、海口村、福兴村、福安村、统埔村、温泉村、保力村、新街村、埔墘村、射寮村、后湾村。约当旧日恒春县之兴文里、咸昌里全部及德和里、仁寿里的部分。本乡目前现有人口数为10356人,男性有5613人,女性有4743人。

荷兰人据台湾时,曾派兵控制此地。明季之时,车城为排湾族所盘据,原本是一片密林,当地土著称之为「库匹亚旺」(KABEYAWAN),进而转音为「龟壁湾」。
永历18年(1664)郑经继郑成功领台,派遣部将自车城登陆,开始屯田垦荒,令部统领兵士南进龟壁湾驻守,命名为统领埔(今之统埔村),逐渐形成庄村。

康熙末年至雍正年间,车城已成为闽人开拓恒春半岛的根据地,由于屡遭原住民袭击侵扰,遂环植木栅于四周以为防御,故有「柴城」之称;干隆末年逐渐形成一街肆,干隆53年(1788)福康安将军率军讨伐林爽文党伙庄大田时,水师即登陆于车城,之后为纪念捷军称车城为「福安庄」(或福安城),并于庄内的福德庙立碑颂功。至于「车城」一名,伊能嘉矩认为是「柴城」发音上的讹误,另一说法则指称早期车城砍伐薪材输出台南地区颇盛,庄民便利用其做为要塞而得以击退番人,故称「柴城」。之后番人又大举来袭,当时车城至海口间沿岸盛行烧制木炭,有搬运木炭的牛车数十台驻列,庄民遂利用牛车作为防御而击退番人,因而将柴城改称车城。虽然车城并未正式建城,但因有木栅环围故亦设有东门、北门(北门路、忠孝路口)及南门(福安路底近钦湖桥)以制出入。

另有一说,干隆51~53(1786-1788)三年间,福康安为剿庄大田,驻兵车城,以木为城故称「柴城」。今车城之市街部分为福兴及福安两村。
康熙22年(明永历37年)7月郑克塽降清,清收台湾入版图,康熙23年4月设台湾府,隶属福建省,下置台湾、凤山、诸罗三县,本乡隶属凤山县所辖。康熙35年,闽南人陆续迁至车城地区,陆续在车城西南二、三公里之海滨,先后建立新街、射寮、埔墘、后湾仔等村。光绪18年(1892)恒春县辖境计分13里,本乡隶属于兴文里(今福兴村、福安村、统埔村、保力村、田中村与海口村)、仁寿里(今新街村)、咸昌里(今温泉村)与德和里(今后湾村、埔墘村、射寮村)。

日明治37年(1904),本乡隶属恒春厅,本乡分隶属于兴文里、咸昌里及德和里。兴文里辖有车城庄(今福兴村、福安村)、统埔庄(今统埔村)保力庄(今保力村)、田中央庄(今田中村、海口村)、新街庄与湛湛庄(今新街村);咸昌里辖有四重溪庄(今温泉村);德和里区管辖埔墘庄(今埔墘村)、后湾庄(今后湾村)、射寮庄(今射寮村)。嗣后,恒春厅改为恒春支厅,本乡仍旧隶属于兴文里、咸昌里与德和里,其中兴文里辖有车城庄(今福兴村、福安村、统埔村)、保力庄(今保力村)、田中央庄(今田中村、海口村、新街村);咸昌里辖有四重溪庄(今温泉村),及德和里辖有射寮庄(今后湾村、埔墘村、射寮村)。大正9年(1920)日人重划行政区域,本乡隶属于高雄州恒春郡,分7个大字:车城(今福兴村、福安村、统埔村)、保力(今保力村)、田中央(今田中村)、海口(今海口村)、新街(今新街村)、四重溪(今温泉村)、射寮(今后湾村、埔墘村、射寮村)。民国34年(1945)台湾光复后,再划车城保为福兴和福安两村,与田中村(原名田中央)、温泉村(原名四重溪)、后湾村(原名后湾仔)、统埔村、海口村、保力村、新街村、埔墘村、射寮村共11村,同为车城乡之辖区。

Divided into 11 villages in the home town: Revitalize village , Fuan the village , interconnected system Pu the village , hot spring village of Tanaka village , Haikou the village , good fortune , protect strength the villages , street the village , Pu village not new of , penetrate small house village of, it make an appointment after gulf village it is the permanent at former days spring on not promoting culture , all and Germany in being the salty and prosperous of county and in, parts of Renshou. Dutchmans have dispatched troops and controlled this place according to Taiwan hour. It is the bright at the time of season ,car city for arranging gulf record according to,slices of thick forest originally, local soil call that ' storehouse roll inferior and prosperous ' , and then transfer to the sound as ' the gulf of the wall of tortoise '. Go through Zheng JingJi Zheng Chenggong lead platform , send inferior officer since the car city is landed one year (1664 ) forever, begin to have garrison troops or peasants open up wasteland and grow food grain and reclaim wasteland, the making department commands the south of the ordinary soldier and enters the gulf of the wall of tortoise to garrison, is named commanding Pu (the village of Pu of interconnected system of today), form the village village gradually. Kang Xi to in the period of the Yong Zheng, car city become Fujian people open up permanent spring base area of the peninsula already last years, is it invade and harass to attack aboriginal repeatly , satisfy ring plant paling on think the defence all around, so known as ' firewood city '; Qianlong forms street four one gradually in last years, fits a general and leads the army to send forces to suppress the comfortable gentle partner , big Tian Shi in the village of party of forest in good fortune health of the 53rd year of Qianlong (1788 ), the navy landed in the car city, later in order to commemorate that the victory army called car city ' the village of Fuan ' (or Fuan ) promptly, and Ford temple in the village sets up a monument and praises the work . As for one of ' car city ', he can be good the square thinks it is the error pronounced of ' the firewood city ', another say rule censure early car city for cut down firewood material output Tainan district quite hold, village the people convenient to make for fortress but can beat back of people with their, so call ' the firewood city '. Of people later is it attack to come on a large scale, car city at that time is it fire charcoal to prevail to Haikou, is it carry charcoal several dozen of ox cart is it arrange to stay , village the people utilize ox cart beat back of people as defence then to have, therefore rename as the firewood city the car city. Though the car city has not built the city formally , it is enclosed but because there is ring of palings so have east door , the north door (north way , loyalty and filial crossing ) and south gate (the road bottom of Fuan is near to admire the lake bridge) in order to make is had besides and said , 51- 5 Qianlong (1786-1788) among the one year, good fortune health is it for put down village land for growing field crops , stay in the soldier car city to set up, regard wood as the city in so the ' firewood city ' of the title. The part of market street of the car city is revitalized for the good fortune today and two villages of Fuan. July Zheng gram lower clearly the 22nd year of Kangxi (bright to go through one year forever ), take back Taiwan completely and enter the domain, set up the office of Taiwan in April of the 23rd year of Kangxi, is under the jurisdiction of Fujian Province, is it put Taiwan , phoenix mountain , all three county Luo to make, home town under the jurisdiction of county on the mountain of phoenix have jurisdiction over. In the 35th year of Kangxi, the south of Fujian Province people adjourned to the area of car city successively , on the seashore of two , three kilometers of southwest of car city successively, successively it set up new street, penetrating small house of, Pu, behind Wan Chai ,etc. village. The county had jurisdiction over the border and scored 6.5 kilometers in permanent spring in the 18th year of Guangxu (1892 ), under the jurisdiction of while promoting culture in the home town (Revitalize the village in good fortune today, village of Fuan, village of Pu of the interconnected system, protect strength the villages , Tanaka village and Haikou village), not in Renshou (street village not new of today), not in being the salty and prosperous(hot spring village of today) and Germany and in (gulf village, unless manage tomorrow day such as Pu village in the future by on the 37 year (1904), last drawing room of spring not permanent home town,divide into not under the jurisdiction of on not promoting culture , not in being the salty and prosperous and Germany ofing home town and in. Have jurisdiction over village of car city while promoting culture (Revitalize the village in good fortune today, the village of Fuan), interconnected system Pu village(today interconnected system Pu village) protect strength village(today protect it strength village ), field village(Tanaka village , Haikou village of today), the street the village and village not profound not profound not new not central (; Have jurisdiction over have quadruplex small stream village in being salty and prosperous(today village of hot spring); Germany and in administer district Pu village(today Pu village), behind gulf village(gulf village in the future), last small house village(today penetrate by small house village). Unless afterwards, whose name is the permanent on the spring the permanent to prop up until spring by drawing room without being changed into in drawing room,under the jurisdiction of on not promoting culture , not in being the salty and prosperous and Germany of home town still and in, have jurisdiction over village of car city while promoting culture among them (whether good fortune revitalize village , village , village of Fuan and Pu of interconnected system today), protect strength village (protect strength village today ) , field central village (today Tanaka village , Haikou village , new street village; It is in being the prosperous been the salty it have jurisdiction over not having small stream village not quadruplex (hot spring village of today),and Germany and in have jurisdiction over not having not for small house villaging(gulf village, Pu village in the future, penetrate small house village of). It is big the person draws the administrative division again on day in 9 years (1920 ), under the jurisdiction of the permanent spring of state in Kaohsjung prefecture in the home town, divide into 7 big characters: Car city (Revitalize the village in good fortune today, village of Fuan, the village of Pu of the interconnected system), protect strength (protect the strength village today), in the middle of the field (today Tanaka village), , Haikou (today Haikou village ) , new street (today new street village ) , quadruplex small stream (today hot spring village ) , penetrate small house (gulf village , Pu in the future rowed the car city and protected as two villages of Fuan of Xinghe of good fortune after Taiwan recovered in the 34th year of the Republic of China (1945 ), with Tanaka village (originally known as the field), originally known as being quadruplex small stream of hot spring village, behind gulf village (Wan Chai after being originally known as ), interconnected system Pu the village, Haikou village, protecting strength the villages, street the village, Pu village not new of, penetrating, all the area under one's jurisdiction of the cars in urban and rural areas.

车城乡徽
车城乡徽以「城门」为中心,加以「庙宇」造型,呈现车城乡名之由来,以及乡民信仰中心「福安宫」,色彩上使用红砖色具历史传承之涵义,后方蓝色之图型,代表水为为财,象征本沿海资源丰富,及海生馆之设立带来地方之繁荣。深绿色之图型为旧时牛车轮,概念延伸运用,象征日出耀升,饱满的深绿色形容生生不息,欣欣向荣的活力,隐含车城乡民皆能事事圆满,家家团圆,另藉以表达车城乡背后靠山之磅礡气势。「城门」中之源源不绝的泉水造型,则表达车城乡内拥有最富饶盛名的温泉村,图型内金黄色,代表本乡洋葱年年丰收遍地黄金。

Regard ' the city gate ' as the centre, the modelling of ' the temple ', the origin of the name in urban and rural areas of car appears, ' the palace of Fuan ' of the faith centre of and the villager, use the red brick color to have meaning that history passes on , rear blue picture type on color , it is the wealth to represent water, it is abundant to symbolize a coastal resource, and the establishment growing the hall in the sea brings the local prosperity. The dark green picture type is ox's wheel of old times, the concept is extended and used, symbolize the sunrise and shine and rise, the energetic one is dark green to describe the life and growth in nature , prosperous vigor, everything of can all imply the people in urban and rural areas of caring is satisfactory, every family's reunion, use to express one pound of imposing manner of the back backer in urban and rural areas of car separately . The spring modelling continuously in ' the city gate ', express the village of hot spring inside with richly most endowed great reputation in urban and rural areas of car, person who pursue getting golden yellow, represent home town onion have a bumper harvest gold everywhere every year.

 

车城乡文学
车城,旧名「柴城」,为恒春半岛最具历史背景的乡村。明郑以后,车城也是南部地区最早纳入清治的地方之一。虽然开发较早,惟受地理环境因素影响,在生活条件艰困的情况下,车城并未产生兴盛的文字文学,而是以一种简单的歌唱型态,发展成民谣吟唱,形成现今著名的「琅峤民谣」,颇具地方文化色彩。车城地区的文学,一言以敝之,可称之为「歌谣文学」。

乡土文学
在现实的经济条件局限下,本乡人才严重外流,所谓「关怀乡土」者,自是心余而力绌了。李明一于教书之余,利用寒暑假及星期假日上山下海,搜集乡土资料,著作有《恒春地区民间宗教习俗调查研究》及《浓浓乡土情-车城》二书。其中《恒春地区民间宗教习俗调查研究》,将恒春半岛住民之宗教信仰与岁时祭祀传统,透过田野调查,加以深入分析,进而凸显出半岛住民的宗教思想和信仰意涵;而《浓浓乡土情-车城》,则是认识车城的引导书。

车城乡民间文学
车城为一具有历史背景之乡,有丰盛的传统诗文,而民间俚俗谚语及念谣也流传甚广。以下简录几首谚语与念谣:
(一)谚语(歇后语)
(1)蕃仔相瓷衩`死白人(白人均读轻声,意指汉人)。
(2)死鸭子-硬嘴巴。
(3)六月芥菜-假有心。
(二)童谣
(1)放鸡:一放鸡,二放鸭,三分开,四相贴,五贴胸,六拍手,七流球,八摸鼻,九咬耳,十摸土脚,十一坐金交椅。
(2)出嫁:无头箍戴瓠杓(音靴),无绣鞋穿木屐,无绕脚车,无轿坐牛车。
(三)灯谜
寺庙本为人们祭祀神祗之处,由于共同信仰产生的结社(宗教团体),在地方上有带动社区活动之作用。位于福兴村的福安宫,每年元宵节均举行灯会活动,此一艺文活动已成为本乡每年一度的传统民俗,且灯会之猜灯谜活动,兼有浓厚的文化气息,长久以来,福安宫的元宵灯会,其灯谜已成为车城重要之民间文学素材之一。
(1)败走麦城断头恨(字一十四笔)-翠
(2)张敞当京兆尹为谁画眉(字一十一笔)-晤
(四)歌谣
(1)土地公:老土地呀!老土地,老人来拜,吃百二,大人来拜,大赚钱,少年来拜,会读书,婴仔来拜,好摇饲。

车城乡传统戏剧
本乡虽具有深厚历史背景,惟因生活条件艰困,300年来,住民在与天搏斗的居住环境下,无暇从事传统艺文活动,因此,境内并无历史悠久之剧团流传。目前可考者,仅福兴村与保力村各有一传统「布袋戏」团而已,且原团主皆呈退休状态。
(一)新国兴掌中剧团
(二)四海香掌中剧团
(三)四海子弟班歌剧团

车城乡传统音乐
本乡境内在日治时期,曾出现北管会的组织,当时系以庙会炉主的形态,每年轮流排班演奏,唯在大正12年(1923)左右,因日本政府的管制,以及经济不继等因素,不得不倏然中止。此后70余年,车城皆未见有传统或地方性乐团出现。
直至民国85年,方有福兴村经营成记中药铺的董延庭,出而组织「福安宫国乐团」。由于董延庭在传统乐曲的弹唱方面颇有造诣,因而早在乐团成立前两年,即已担任福安宫老人会的音乐指导老师。「福安宫国乐团」成立后,每逢初一、十五、年节喜庆,以及酬神庙会等场合,均会演奏,自娱娱人。
该团有团员20几人,皆为乡内各村之家庭主妇,仅有2名男性团员,平日聚合以休闲、趣味为主,属业余性质。

民俗技艺
(一)阵头
早期农业社会日出而作,日入而息,先民生活单调,耕余闲暇,为了打发时间,便结合邻里组织各种游艺性社团,如唱戏或民间曲艺等等,更为积极的乃有「阵头」之出现。

(二)狮头阵
狮头在传统民间信仰中,被认为具有避邪招福的作用,可驱逐鬼魅,清净四方。在民俗上,狮头必须经过开眼、读经、送煞、挂置等仪式后,方具有锐不可当的「神力」。
正因如此,在节庆中生气勃勃且色彩缤纷的狮子,随着锣鼓的节奏,以劲健的步伐,忽左忽右地前扑或后跃,借着有趣而讨喜的动作,象征大吉大利的到来。

保力文物馆
保力社区是车城地区早期移民垦殖时期两个客籍聚落之一,身为少数族群为求生存,保力先民一路走倍觉艰辛,唯恐先民艰辛生活记忆及勤奋精神日趋凋零,为后世子孙所遗忘,民国87年保力社区发展协会因此决定成立保力文物馆,收藏先民的文物资产为保力社区早期开垦历史留下纪录,供后世子孙凭吊与砥砺。

保力文物馆于民国89年5月10日落成开始接受社区民众捐赠早期所使用的耕作农具、生活器具与衣饰等对象,于民国90年4月归类、编目、照相、统计所有收藏对象,编撰成保力社区文物馆收藏集乙册,当时馆内共计收藏208件,细分为农具39件、加工调制器具20件、渔猎器具14件、家具52件、炊具11件、餐具12件、容器13件、衣饰15件、文件21件、其它11件。迄民国92年6月止共计收藏261件。

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